The Two People We're All Related To

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  • Published: 24 October 2018
  • Check out Two Cents: http://cepnet.mobi/channel/UCL8w_A8p8P1HWI3k6PR5Z6w

    Due to an odd quirk of genetics and some unique evolutionary circumstances, two humans who lived at different times in the distant past managed to pass on a very small fraction of their genomes to you. And to me. To all of us.

    Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: cepnet.mobi/user/pbsdigitalstudios

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    References:
    ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3334592/
    ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3267120/
    pdfs.semanticscholar.org/f4ee/6bfac21f39ac51fc306ba3100c2ebd2ee61a.pdf
    ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5892150/
    ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4032117/
    ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5500864/
    haplogroup-a.com/Ancient-Root-AJHG2013.pdf
    ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5418327/
    ase.tufts.edu/chemistry/hhmi/documents/Protocols/Maternal%20Ancestry_Introduction_Reworked_Aug_25_2011.pdf
    pages.ucsd.edu/~dkjordan/resources/clarifications/MitochondrialEve.html
    cell.com/action/showPdf?pii=S0960-9822%2813%2900215-7
    ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4367903/
    cell.com/action/showPdf?pii=S0002-9297%2809%2900163-3
    newscientist.com/article/mg22429904-500-found-closest-link-to-eve-our-universal-ancestor/
    smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/no-mitochondrial-eve-not-first-female-species-180959593/
    nature.com/news/genetic-adam-and-eve-did-not-live-too-far-apart-in-time-1.13478
    ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5525259/
    hhmi.org/biointeractive/evolution-y-chromosome
    pnas.org/content/106/38/16018
    nature.com/articles/jhg2012154
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    ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28086175
  • Science and Technology Science and Technology

Comments • 2 445

  • Kanley West
    Kanley West  49 minutes back

    Short answer, we are all related to Genghis Khan. Congratulations internet, I win.

    • Te’ Douglas
      Te’ Douglas  4 hours back

      You go by father

      • Michael Holloway
        Michael Holloway  6 hours back

        Human evolution (all evolution) is getting messier the more it's studied. I'd say complex, but this doesn't convey the right amount of random chaos. Right now trees are showing Homo heidelbergensis as the trunk for sapiens, neanderthals, and denisonans. If that's true all could carry the same Y chromosome lineage despite the interbreeding, but how likely is this when interbreeding and DNA transfer is constantly being discovered across what we define as "species". Genetic drift lineage assumes just one Y chromosome ancestor, but there's reason to doubt that. Multiple Y chromosomes in a messier Homo ancestry would have been highly related, but they wouldn't trace back to a single individual. The loss of this assumption would throw off age calculations.

        • ImsoK00l YT
          ImsoK00l YT  1 days back

          Omg we are all related to xxxtentacion

          • Don G
            Don G  1 days back

            My mother was the best person I have even known! My small way of honoring her!

            • Alexander
              Alexander  2 days back

              There is no proof for the Y-chromosome haplogroups leading back to one single ancestor. This is actually not proven and doesn't have near the same empirical data as the mithocondrial Eve, might want to mention this is a theory that basically only exists because of that's how it works with your maternal line. There is very very little proof of (almost) any macro haplogroups on your Y-dna side.

              Could also take up how one Australian aboriginal had an MTdna group that ain't related to any other recorded.

              • Uncertain boy
                Uncertain boy  3 days back

                This video proves why lesbians were more accepted than gays lol

                • LucasBurgos31
                  LucasBurgos31  4 days back

                  Cool Ted Bundy’s my cousin 😀

                  • barely inc.
                    barely inc.  5 days back

                    Y’all... we banging our cousins 😩

                    • jack thunderbolt
                      jack thunderbolt  6 days back

                      how about a video about early human hunting?

                      • ernst neumann
                        ernst neumann  7 days back

                        i did hear that mens genetic is only 10% today.all other men died out in a Kind of Holocaust.we do not know what happend but a lot of genetic flexibility is lost in todays world.nobody knows how it was organized,men are all more the same .very strange.

                      • Josh Castro
                        Josh Castro  1 weeks back

                        i only want sons

                        • Catherine Alces
                          Catherine Alces  1 weeks back

                          hate to be nitpicky, but your mitochondrial lineage is due to biological *sex*, not gender

                          • Veronica Logotheti
                            Veronica Logotheti  2 weeks back

                            Genghis khan had a daughter that didnt marry

                            • Veronica Logotheti
                              Veronica Logotheti  2 weeks back

                              Thank you

                              • Samantha Koerntgen
                                Samantha Koerntgen  2 weeks back

                                🤮🤮🤮🤮🤮🤮 thanks

                                • wildcatter63
                                  wildcatter63  2 weeks back

                                  Mitochondrial DNA is now known to have incursions/recombinations from the fathers DNA approximately every 5000 births

                                  • Advait Talekar
                                    Advait Talekar  2 weeks back

                                    No!!! We are half cylons!!!!

                                    • Rock Brentwood
                                      Rock Brentwood  2 weeks back

                                      The two people who all are *believed* to be related to. There is no complete DNA database; and it only takes one still-existing survivor of a sibling-branch to refute the claim.

                                      • Gustavo Gonzalez
                                        Gustavo Gonzalez  2 weeks back

                                        We’re all related but some of us want to scam others out of money by charging family for DNA tests?

                                        • John DC
                                          John DC  1 weeks back

                                          People wanna know how related they are to everyone else though. They aren't going to settle with "oh yes uh, the tests are back and it seems that every other human and to an extent, every other living creature is related to you. Who knew"

                                      • Gustavo Gonzalez
                                        Gustavo Gonzalez  2 weeks back

                                        Lilo and Stitch are correct.

                                        • josiah88
                                          josiah88  2 weeks back

                                          So we now know we all came from two people....but.....it CAN’T have any relationship to the biblical story of creation because???? That would just sound way to biblical I guess

                                          • John DC
                                            John DC  1 weeks back

                                            Because the genetic analysis states that they came from 2 completely different time periods.

                                            If it is somehow related to bibilical creation accounts, the writers of Genesis seems to be pretty vague with their statements. Almost like it's coincidental.

                                        • hyejoogf
                                          hyejoogf  2 weeks back

                                          so my gf is my sister? wow lmao

                                          • Jasmine_ Rice
                                            Jasmine_ Rice  2 weeks back

                                            “The two people we’re all related to.”
                                            Ah yes,our parents.

                                            • Andrew Blucher
                                              Andrew Blucher  2 weeks back

                                              Is all PBS Eons work this sloppy?
                                              Describing DNA as holding information is fine, but then calling mitochondrial DNA and the Y chromosome *bits* of information is completely *wrong*. A bit is the smallest unit of information. Any chunk of DNA holds many, many bits. If you are going to talk about a scientific concept then at least get the basics right.
                                              This sloppy language continues.
                                              If you want to teach science then the least you can do is get it right.

                                              • Andrea
                                                Andrea  2 weeks back

                                                Technically, earth is a venue for a family reunion that we have been attending our whole lives, and if you travel to space you are leaving that family reunion.

                                                • AN ANIMATOR
                                                  AN ANIMATOR  3 weeks back

                                                  Oh I get it...

                                                  *Where the hells my 7 1/2 billion birthday presents 😠*

                                                  • Chris Smith
                                                    Chris Smith  3 weeks back

                                                    Maybe first modern humans?

                                                    • TheUltimateNatural
                                                      TheUltimateNatural  3 days back

                                                      No you misunderstand. It doesn't mean those are the first modern humans it just means the lineages of other humans or the other humans themselves didn't survive. IT could also mean that other Mitochondria DNA was replaced.

                                                  • Roger Kreil
                                                    Roger Kreil  3 weeks back

                                                    Crazy! 😛

                                                    • albert miller
                                                      albert miller  3 weeks back

                                                      This guy talks so slow that I fell asleep.

                                                      • Gary_t
                                                        Gary_t  3 weeks back

                                                        That that mean the whole world is Alabama. All having $3x with are family

                                                        • no one
                                                          no one  3 weeks back

                                                          Distant relatives

                                                          • Carmen Freeman
                                                            Carmen Freeman  3 weeks back

                                                            Wow.

                                                            • Truth Be Told
                                                              Truth Be Told  3 weeks back

                                                              Southerners must be pretty happy about this.

                                                            • super00su
                                                              super00su  4 weeks back

                                                              The most efficientan mitcohondrial will produce most energy. It cars we want the to have better MPG, you see see less V8.

                                                              • Ava Van Elis
                                                                Ava Van Elis  4 weeks back

                                                                Kevin Bacon?

                                                                • Nettle
                                                                  Nettle  4 weeks back

                                                                  It’s gonna take a while to wrap that many presents for that many birthdays...

                                                                  • SaruCharmed
                                                                    SaruCharmed  4 weeks back

                                                                    We're ALL related to these two people? Or just those of us whose ancestors left Africa in prehistory?

                                                                    • Nate
                                                                      Nate  4 weeks back

                                                                      ALL of us. Not just the ones who left. Evidence tells us both of these two people likely lived in Africa (though they may not have lived at the same time or in the same region, Africa is pretty big after all). The ones who left carried these two people's legacy with them all over the world but the ones who stayed also kept it alive in Africa.

                                                                  • Rudolph Hart
                                                                    Rudolph Hart  4 weeks back

                                                                    Have you ever thought of speaking like a "normal" human being, instead of a genetically mutated amphetimine experiment? maybe you would get a more positive review!

                                                                    • Thrawn
                                                                      Thrawn  4 weeks back

                                                                      we are absolutely NOT all from Afrika.

                                                                    • SuperPokemonTyler
                                                                      SuperPokemonTyler  1 months back

                                                                      Cousins I had an old account that had 500 dubs pleaded help me go back cousins

                                                                      • Theo Suharto
                                                                        Theo Suharto  1 months back

                                                                        I'm in sudden urge to pass my genome

                                                                        • Scout Dog
                                                                          Scout Dog  1 months back

                                                                          Whoa! slow down hoss. Sometimes less is more and this is definitely one of those cases.

                                                                          • Khaleesi Romaerys
                                                                            Khaleesi Romaerys  1 months back

                                                                            I wanna eat the narrator's sperm cells.

                                                                            • Charley Edwards
                                                                              Charley Edwards  1 months back

                                                                              Epic

                                                                              • Mary Foxworthy
                                                                                Mary Foxworthy  1 months back

                                                                                So - I'm related to my husband???? 50,000 years ago, I guess.

                                                                                • Felix Nemo
                                                                                  Felix Nemo  1 months back

                                                                                  We are also related to mammals that has four legs. We just broke off from their family tree, but once, we were all the same.

                                                                                  • Whitney Barrs-Frank
                                                                                    Whitney Barrs-Frank  1 months back

                                                                                    Very interested in this topic