When We Met Other Human Species

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  • Published: 10 July 2019
  • We all belong to the only group of hominins on the planet today. But we weren’t always alone. 100,000 years ago, Eurasia was home to other hominin species, some of which we know our ancestors met, and spent some quality time with.

    Thanks to Julio Lacerda and Fabrizio de Rossi from Studio 252mya for their wonderful hominin illustrations. You can find more of their work here: 252mya.com/

    Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: cepnet.mobi/user/pbsdigitalstudios

    Super special thanks to the following Patreon patrons for helping make Eons possible:
    Katie Fichtner, Anthony Callaghan, MissyElliottSmith, The Scintillating Spencer, AA, Zachary Spencer, Stefan Weber, Ilya Murashov, Charles Kahle, Robert Amling, Po Foon Kwong, Larry Wilson, Merri Snaidman, John Vanek, Neil H. Gray, Esmeralda Rupp-Spangle, Gregory Donovan, الخليفي سلطان, Gabriel Cortez, Marcus Lejon, Robert Arévalo, Robert Hill, Todd Dittman, Betsy Radley, PS, Philip Slingerland, Jose Garcia, Eric Vonk, Tony Wamsley, Henrik Peteri, Jonathan Wright, Jon Monteiro, James Bording, Brad Nicholls, Miles Chaston, Michael McClellan, Jeff Graham, Maria Humphrey, Nathan Paskett, Connor Jensen, Daisuke Goto, Hubert Rady, Gregory Kintz, Tyson Cleary, Chandler Bass, Joao Ascensao, Tsee Lee, Sarah Fritts, Alex Yan

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    References: docs.google.com/document/d/1h8iVAIugVPfxOcCZKeZxtZfa6mNP8V7xMhS_vxmDRl0/edit?usp=sharing
  • Science and Technology Science and Technology

Comments • 5 910

  • PBS Eons
    PBS Eons   3 months back

    Some commenters have pointed out that calling Neanderthals and Denisovans “other hominin species” in this episode breaks the rules of the biological species concept (BSC), which says if two things can interbreed, then they’re the same species. Some paleoanthropologists would agree. They consider both Neanderthals and Denisovans to be subspecies of Homo sapiens, rather than separate species. Other experts would say that Neanderthals have a set of features that make them clearly distinguishable from Homo sapiens, putting them outside the range of variation we include in our species. And we hardly know the Denisovans - like we said in the video, they don’t even have a scientific name yet.


    The incredible thing about this is that we can even think about applying the BSC to fossils at all. The BSC is a species concept based on living organisms, and it’s only been within the last two decades or so that we’ve had the ancient DNA and the technology to test hypotheses about interbreeding in extinct groups. And it’s not the only way to define a species, either, so it will likely be a while (if ever) before anthropologists decide whether we’re a different species, subspecies, or population from the Neanderthals and Denisovans.


    (Darcy Shapiro, PhD, script editor)

    • Bill Keck
      Bill Keck  2 hours back

      Sometimes I wonder. If a paleontologist found fossils in different parts of the world would they classify Pygmies (about 4 ft tall( as the same species as Zulus (about 7 ft tall.) What about Bushmen of the Kalahari, or Asians, say Japanese. or Australian Aborigines. Or Mayans? Would these all be classified as the same "species"? Again, remember, I talking about dead fossils.
      I recently saw an Tyrannosaur exhibit at the American Museum of Natural, where they've recently identified that small T-Rex-like "species" are actually the same species of Tyrannosaurus Rex, but at different ages: baby, adolescent, young adult, adult.

    • Alex2149
      Alex2149  3 hours back

      PBS Eons γες

    • pauldh62
      pauldh62  2 days back

      @Flightrisk When we have thoroughly aired this one 50 to 100 years from now I reckon there will be several more brothers or sister human species discovered, all assimilated with Sapiens Sapiens.

    • Flightrisk
      Flightrisk  2 days back

      PBS Eons they need to be looking at the specific blood types. People should consider that we are the product of other types of beings. Rh- folks for example have an extra vertebra as well they have more copper streaming in their blood, making them far more conductive! These things are important to consider when looking at our ancient ancestors or root races. Then we must always remember that the truth is right inside all of us, safely stored in our DNA. Time to start researching inwardly💚💫

    • Rayvn e'Kieron
      Rayvn e'Kieron  3 days back

      @pauldh62 That's essentially true, as far as I can tell! So resonably, dogs could be considered a subspecies of wolves. But dogs can interbreed with coyotes and jackals as well, which are also considered to be separate species.

  • HeavensGremlin
    HeavensGremlin  38 minutes back

    It's the guy that voices Kermit the Frog......

    • Dalton Ivey
      Dalton Ivey  52 minutes back

      They were slaves and eventually worked to death.

      • Armin X
        Armin X  2 hours back

        Sapiens - Human
        Florensis - Hobbits
        Neanderthals - basically dwarfs

        So basically some of the most prominent species from the Fantasy genre are based on ancient relatives?

        • WeGotSwag
          WeGotSwag  2 hours back

          Isn’t it funny how every recreation of the new species look Caucasian

          • Eshe’s_World
            Eshe’s_World  2 hours back

            The missing link🤔

            • Thumbed Down And Left
              Thumbed Down And Left  9 hours back

              So, basically... There actually IS some merit to the concept of racism.

              • Ashadieeyah Sultana
                Ashadieeyah Sultana  11 hours back

                Personally I think what have Homo sapiens Sapiens (modern humans) an advantage is our ability to adapt rapidly. Wether that’s through more advanced technology or through interbreeding with species adapted to those locations

                • Robert Ford
                  Robert Ford  13 hours back

                  Love this video

                  • rebeccamaria63
                    rebeccamaria63  13 hours back

                    Basically, they were ALL HUMANS of SOME kind. Why be so species-ist. They were all conscious hominids. We were just the trickiest, luckiest and probably the most aggressive, lets face it.

                    • Duck Moore
                      Duck Moore  14 hours back

                      So... Does this mean I’m a “mutt”?

                      • Duck Moore
                        Duck Moore  14 hours back

                        So WHO do we blame for the appendix?

                        • Doctor Medkit
                          Doctor Medkit  20 hours back

                          It bugs me so much that he keeps saying Neandertalls

                          • Mojo Dope
                            Mojo Dope  20 hours back

                            2:30 translates at the top of the bones not the pit of the bones which refers to down.

                            • Alejo petinato
                              Alejo petinato  20 hours back

                              hi man awesome video! greatings from argentina! a little CORRECTION: sima de los huesos is not pit of bones, "sima" its the top o a mount or mountain. mi respects! keep doing ur viedos are great!

                              • christian cravens
                                christian cravens  22 hours back

                                Holds true today as yesterday...dudes will get freaky with pretty much anything

                                • Sacha David
                                  Sacha David  23 hours back

                                  The lesson of the story is to breed with strangers as much as possible!

                                  • T. Ferttita is a Commie bootlicker

                                    He didnt mention homo naledi, homo florensis, and possibly even homo erectus were alive at the same time as well.

                                    • benevolent
                                      benevolent  1 days back

                                      4:45 nip slip

                                      • Victor Prokop
                                        Victor Prokop  2 days back

                                        Is the "Sexy Neanderthal Theory" plausable?

                                        • εтɦαɳ uwu
                                          εтɦαɳ uwu  2 days back

                                          Wow so my ancestors are hoes.

                                          • Brick Animations
                                            Brick Animations  2 days back

                                            It’s sad that we are the only human species left but imagine the racism if all the species were still here

                                            • Rizal Punio
                                              Rizal Punio  2 days back

                                              More discrimination I think

                                              • Lirrulewon
                                                Lirrulewon  2 days back

                                                So at the end of the day we are all Africans hmmmm

                                                some mixed some not.

                                                • Aster B
                                                  Aster B  2 days back

                                                  hMmMmM this could be an anime

                                                  • THAT eLmo GUY
                                                    THAT eLmo GUY  2 days back

                                                    NeanderTALLS

                                                    • Sergio Alcantara
                                                      Sergio Alcantara  2 days back

                                                      According to my dna test I have Neanderthal dna in me. That might be the cause of my stupidity at times. 😂

                                                      • Anthony R.
                                                        Anthony R.  2 days back

                                                        What are names of the background tones? Or what genre is that I feel like some of them get me in a creative mood lol

                                                        • Christian Soriano
                                                          Christian Soriano  2 days back

                                                          Sima means top of.. usually a mountain Hill etc... Not a pit

                                                          • cenkiss2331
                                                            cenkiss2331  2 days back

                                                            We are the neandarthals. They did not get extinct. This nonsense theory called out of africa has no basis. Africa has no civilization , all traces of greatest Human civilizations are around mediterranian sea and fertile crescent. Yet the fools insist on something ridiculous because of politics.

                                                            • Yen Feng
                                                              Yen Feng  2 days back

                                                              😂😂 1800 years there is but one race the human race so are people who saying there unicorns salvores or whatever.

                                                              • BDFFRNT
                                                                BDFFRNT  2 days back

                                                                We are not one lone branch, but rather one homogeneous canopy. Love the video, and the green ❤

                                                                • Angel A
                                                                  Angel A  2 days back

                                                                  Takeaway: If someone looks like you (I.e. same ethnic group), you are too close in the gene pool- RUN don't walk and find someone else to procreate with😉😁

                                                                  • Ana R
                                                                    Ana R  3 days back

                                                                    Its not sima de los huesos but cima de los huesos

                                                                    • the one momojombo
                                                                      the one momojombo  3 days back

                                                                      If human kill another human being just because of their skin colour.. What makes you think a different humanoid species will survive our human cruelty?

                                                                      • karim tahamouka
                                                                        karim tahamouka  3 days back

                                                                        come to the middle east i think you might find lots of Neanderthals here

                                                                        • Matthew Thompson
                                                                          Matthew Thompson  3 days back

                                                                          Make a video on why scientists always over-prununciate words. Its neanderTHAL not neandertall smh

                                                                          • Shaun Cummings
                                                                            Shaun Cummings  3 days back

                                                                            I’m telling my church on you

                                                                            • KraggleWulf
                                                                              KraggleWulf  3 days back

                                                                              Well I know where my sex drive comes from now.

                                                                              • Cal
                                                                                Cal  3 days back

                                                                                "Neander-tall"

                                                                                • Lindsay Williams
                                                                                  Lindsay Williams  3 days back

                                                                                  What about studying the genes/DNA of indigenous people? I feel like that could show a lot of information

                                                                                  • Knaughty F
                                                                                    Knaughty F  13 hours back

                                                                                    Indigenous is a very vague term in human evolution. Even the oldest fossil sample found in North America (Arlington springs man/woman/whatever) is just a boring homo sapien.

                                                                                • victor soto
                                                                                  victor soto  3 days back

                                                                                  So, Native Africans, who never migrated and met others, are the only "true" Homo Sapiens. There is more diversity of DNA in Africa than anywhere else in the world...the more diverse, the genetics, the healthier the body.
                                                                                  The combination of inbreeding and interbreeding, by western man, has diluted the bloodline of "true" humans.

                                                                                  • Jose Rodriguez
                                                                                    Jose Rodriguez  3 days back

                                                                                    Is that Mr. Green?

                                                                                    • Isa_735
                                                                                      Isa_735  3 days back

                                                                                      I freaking love this guy

                                                                                      • Nick Sklavos
                                                                                        Nick Sklavos  3 days back

                                                                                        Very nice and very informative. Thank you very much. Of course there is always the 5% that don’t like to hear scientific facts. What do you do let’s laugh.

                                                                                        • Mister WarBeast
                                                                                          Mister WarBeast  3 days back

                                                                                          Neanderthals didn't go extinct... we just learned to blend in and not be noticed...

                                                                                          • Marty Jansing
                                                                                            Marty Jansing  3 days back

                                                                                            homo sapien archaic, homo sapien neanderthals. homo sapien sapien....populations have variations